Weather of West Bengal
Climate: Tropical savannah in the southern portions and humid subtropical in the north
Annual rainfall: 2,739 mm in the Sub-Himalayan West Bengal, 1,439 in the Gangetic West Bengal
India’s eastern state West Bengal experiences a tropical climate, thanks to its geographical location. The physiography of the state is so diverse that it touches Himalayas in the North and borders Bay of Bengal in the south. The northern districts of West Bengal remain cold all throughout which is the reason why the hill stations are preferred by the tourists in summer months. Variation is the key to the climate of West Bengal. The Seasons of the state are classified into summer, winter, autumn and rainy season. While the summer spans from the mid of March to Mid of June, the temperatures is from 38 degrees to 45 degrees. The high temperature leads to the forming of low-pressure areas on the plains which leads to nor-westers which pave the way to a sudden drop in the temperature. Monsoon approaches the state by the middle of June which is greatly influenced by the winds flowing from Bay of Bengal. The autumn reaches Bengal by September while the state experiences a mild and pleasant winter from mid-November to the middle of February.
Location: 85 degree 50 minutes and 89 degree 50 minutes east longitude, and 21 degrees 38 minutes and 27 degrees 10 minutes north latitude.
Area: 88,752 square kilometres
- West Bengal experiences great variations in weather which is mainly based on the geographical location and topography of the place.
- As per the climate, the year can be divided into three seasons namely—hot and dry season (March to early June) with dry, humid days and recurrent thunderstorms; hot and wet season (mid-June to September), when rain-bearing monsoon winds flowing from the southwest; and the cold season (October to February), when days are dry, clear and stable climatic conditions prevail.
- While the Delta region of West Bengal experiences great humid summer, the western highlands have a dry summer, similar to North India with the temperatures ranging from 38 degrees to 45 degrees. April is usually, the hottest month
- In summers, nights witness a cool southerly breeze from Bay of Bengal, which brings relief to the people.
- The low pressure troughs formed during April and May draws winds from Northwest causing cyclonic storms, thunderstorms and rainfall.
- West Bengal also receives the Indian Ocean monsoon which flies in the Northwest direction which brings rain in the months of June to September. The south west monsoons draw the moisture from the Bay of Bengal, which brings rain.
- The Monsoon is much awaited in West Bengal with the landscape turning lush green after the monsoon showers.
- During the months of south west monsoon season, the air is dump with the humidity become 80 to 90 percent over the parts of the state.
- In the annual rainfall of 175 cm which the state receives, 125 cm is received during this time, especially in Northern and Western Plateau. In monsoons, the coastal regions of the state often have storms due to the low pressure in Bay of Bengal. Districts like Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri and Behar receive about 250 centimetres of rainfall.
- The arrival of monsoons also causes low pressure in Bay of Bengal, which leads to storms in coastal regions.
- Autumn season visits Bengal for a shorter duration from the beginning of the month of October to the middle of November. Clear sky and low temperature, low pressure, retreating monsoon and cyclonic storms are typical of autumn in Bengal.
- Winter visits west Bengal from the middle of November to December with January experiencing the maximum cold. It is mild over the plains with the maximum temperature is 15 degrees. Cold and dry winds, low humidity and minimal level of rain are witnessed. Darjeeling experience harsh winter with infrequent snowfalls.
- Winter is the driest season in which the state receive just 1 to 3.5 percent of the annual rainfall
- West Bengal witness variations in rainfall with northern parts of the state receiving 200 to 400 cm of rain. While the coastal regions receive 200 cm, Ganga Plain and the central areas receive about 150-200 cm. Bankura and Purulia districts experience frequent droughts.
- Hilly regions such as Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri experience cool climate, mainly because of the high altitude. Here, in summer, the average temperature is 15 °C while in winter, it is 2 °C. This region is obstructed by the Himalayas and receive huge amount of snowfall.
- The capital, Kolkata usually experience humid and hot summers, with the temperatures soaring up to 40 degrees during May and June while in winters, the temperatures dipping to 11 degrees. The city also experiences an annual rainfall of 1,582 mm during monsoon.