Read about the Mughal Empire that ruled almost whole of India and Pakistan in the 16th and 17th centuries

Mughal Empire

Mughal Empire

The Mogul Empire (Persian : شاهان گورکانی Shāhān-e Gūrkānī; Urdu : مغلیہ سلطنت; English: Mughal Empire, 1526 Year – 1857) was a feudal autocratic Dynasty established in India by Babur, the descendant of Timur, a Turkic Mongolian. In the heyday of the empire, the territory covered almost the entire South Asian subcontinent and Afghanistan. The superstructure of the Mogul Empire is Muslim, and its foundation is Hinduism. Persian is the language of court, public affairs, diplomacy, literature and upper society.

After the collapse of the Timur Empire, Babur, the descendant of the imperial family, led an army to invade the South Asian Subcontinent to establish the Mogul Empire. The Empire declined at one time during the period of his son Humayun, and then entered its heyday during the period of Akbar, the third generation emperor. During this period, the Mogul Empire implemented a policy of cultural integration and religious tolerance, but this policy was still in force. During the fourth generation of Emperor Jahangir, they were abandoned for rebellion. By the time of the fifth generation emperor Shah Jahan, the Mogul Empire was unprecedentedly strong. However, due to the heavy civil and taxation disputes of Shah Jahan, Shah Jahan was overthrown by his son Aurangzeb in 1657. The territory of the Mogul Empire reached its maximum in the Aurangzeb period, but a series of problems left over from the Shah Jahan period led to the decline of the Mogul Empire.

After the fall of the Mogul Empire, the British Empire, the French Colonial Empire, the Dutch Colonial Empire and the Portuguese Colonial Empire competed for colonies in India, and finally Britain won, making the Mogul Emperor a puppet. In 1858, Queen Victoria of Britain was awarded the title of Queen of India, established British India, and the Mughal Dynasty perished.


Establishment of Empire

After the demise of the Timur Empire, after being expelled from the river, Babur crossed the mountains and entered Afghanistan, captured Kabul, and established a small Dynasty in Kabul. He led Ismail’s army back into the river in a hurry and successfully entered Samarkand City (October 1511). After Samarkand, Bukhara opened the door to him again, while the Uzbeks of Mongolia retreated to Tashkent. Babur went to occupy Tashkent and became the ruler of Tashkent and Central Asia. With the victory of the Iranians in Huroshan as a pillar, the restoration of the Timur Dynasty in the river seems to have been completed. But Babur began to encounter unexpected difficulties. The Persians he had asked for help and accepted his patriarchal sovereignty were Ten-Leaf Muslims. The inhabitants of Buhara and Samarkand believed in Sunnis, who accused him of negotiating with heretics and breaking off relations with him. Their religious enthusiasm was stronger than their loyalty to the Timur kings. Inspired by these religious disturbances, Uzbeks have made a comeback. Persian General Najim Shani and Babur fought against them in a major battle in the Gulf of Gaja north of Bukhara, which they defeated (December 12, 1512) and killed Najim. Babur abandoned all attempts in the river and returned to his kingdom of Kabul. Seven years later, he set out from Kabul to conquer India. As a result, Bukhara, Samarkand the whole river area were transferred to Mongolian Uzbeks.

Babur tried to expand his territory in Central Asia, but after being frustrated, he turned his attention to the scattered and fragmented Sultanate of Delhi in the south. It was then that Babur had a convenient excuse: the Governor of Punjab invited him to send troops to “rescue” him from his lord, Sudan. So he carried out a “jihad” to the south.

India’s Sultanate of Delhi has suffered a severe blow, surviving in name, and Northern India is in a state of secession. In 1510, the Mongolian aristocrat Babur ruled northern India. In 1525, Babur attacked India in the south, captured Delhi the following year, defeated the Indian princes’coalition forces repeatedly, conquered most of northern India and established the Mogul Empire. It can be seen that the Mogul Empire was originally established by foreign peoples in India. Since then, different sects and scattered village communities in India have embarked on the road of national unity, becoming one of the richest and most powerful countries in the world at that time. Babur began to turn to the whole Indian subcontinent, occupying half of the Indian Peninsula in a short time. He used the method of “imprinting” to divide the unconquered territory of the northern part of the Indian Peninsula into every Indian feudal lord, no matter what method they used, as long as they managed that was their territory. Soon the north of India was basically unified. In the spring of 1527, Babur exchanged fire with Rana Sanga. After a fierce fight, Rana Sanga was seriously injured and 13 injuries were added to his body. The total number of injuries broke through the 100-yuan mark. Nevertheless, the Rajputs were eventually defeated by Babur. In 1528, Mahmoud summoned 100,000 Afghan coalition forces in Bihar to compete with Babur for a man and a woman. At the confluence of the Ganges River and the Goqiaola River, the two armies opened their battlefields. Babur personally directed the Mongols to cross the Goqiaola River under the cover of strong artillery fire, and to separate their forces to attack the enemy. When the two armies met, the brave won, the Afghans collapsed and Mahmoud fled to Bangladesh. This battle became the last battle in Babur’s life. On December 26, 1530, Babur died young at the age of 48. He is the author of Memoirs of Barbour. Babur occupied a large area of territory from Goqiaola River in the east, Amu River in the west, Guariol in the South and Himalayas in the North during his life’s campaign.

Interruption and restructuring

In 1530, after Babur died of illness, his son Humayun succeeded to the throne. It is an attempt to conquer India with a mixed army of Turks, Mongols, Persians, Afghans and Indians in Chahatai to realize his father’s will. His three half-brothers, Kamran, Hindal and Askari, attacked him and fought for the throne. Many Afghan aristocrats scattered around the country have launched a military rebellion. In 1539, the rebellious Prince of Eastern Afghanistan, Shersha, was destroyed in the Battle of Josha, and he fled. Shersha occupied Delhi and established the Sul Dynasty. Not only did it extend its territory to Bangladesh, Bihar and Malawi, but it also made great achievements politically, socially and economically. He practiced enlightened politics and adopted a policy of tolerance towards Hinduism; it established an effective monarchy and impartial law enforcement; he reformed the tax system, levied land for good and bad, issued silver rupees; built roads and set up posts to link the “main roads” of the capital, Arag, Bangladesh, Laziptan and other places in contemporary India. One of the main roads. His land tax reform is the blueprint of Akbar’s reform in the future.

Shersha was killed in the war in 1545. In 1555, Humayun re-conquered the Indian plain, occupied Delhi and Agra, and restored the rule of the Mogul Empire in India. During his exile in Iran, he was further influenced by Iranian culture, converted from Sunni to Shia, and brought back Iranian culture that had a far-reaching impact on the Mogul Empire. With the help of Iran, Akbar succeeded in 1556, carried out progressive internal affairs reform, adopted tolerant religious policies, and expanded the social and political basis of the Mogul Empire’s domination of India. He established a centralized system, opened up territory, unified the vast areas of the subcontinent, and promoted the social and economic development of India. The whole country is divided into several Ikta (provinces) and 47 Sakar (administrative regions). Sakar is further divided into Palgana, with local officials such as Amin (judges), Hikdal (tax officers), treasurer, clerks and so on. In order to prevent any corruption, it is stipulated that salaries should be paid to officials on time. Officials are transferred every two to three years. But soon afterwards, he died of a mistake in the library.

The country is flourishing day by day

In 1556, Humayun died six months after reappointment. In February, with the help of Bahiram Khan, Akbar, who was only thirteen years old, succeeded to the throne. Akbar was not well educated when he was young. With the help of General Bajram Khan, Akbar began to govern the Mogul Empire. When he first succeeded, the territory of the Mogul Empire was small, and Delhi, the capital, was occupied by the Afghan aristocrat Him. Sim gathered a hundred thousand troops to wipe out the Mughals at one stroke. Akbar’s army is only 20,000. Some ministers advised Akbar to quit India and return to Kabul for rest. But General Bahiram Khan tried to put his voice on the table, proposing to mobilize all forces to fight against him. Akbar adopted this suggestion. The decisive battle took place in Panipart, north of Delhi, where Akbar’s grandfather, Babur, won a major victory 30 years ago

When Akbar was 18 years old, he regained power and ordered his uncle to retire in Holy Mecca. Akbar finally came to power by himself. After Akbar got rid of the yoke of right and left, he began to expanse his territory, and he adopted different policies for different regions. In the areas where he expressed his willingness to return, he still allowed the former leader to manage the land and entrusted great responsibilities to his descendants. In 1567, Akbar attacked Meval and spent four months attacking him, killing 30,000 people. He also took down the bronze drum as the symbol of the Kingdom and the candlestick on the throne of Mother God as his trophy. Akbar unified North India in 15 years by means of force and gentleness. It took him another 16 years to expand the territory to the far northwest. Finally, it took him another three years to pacify several kingdoms in the south, thus establishing a powerful Mogul empire.

In order to consolidate his regime, he reformed and rectified the internal affairs of his country. He ordered officials to re-measure the land, divide the empire into 182 tax zones and impose strict hierarchical taxes; he also abolished the custom of selling prisoners of war to slaves; he ordered the abolition of the head tax, the pilgrim tax (the tax on pilgrims conquering Hindus), the additional tax on farmland, and in case of natural disasters and man-made disasters, the tax on farmland would be exempted; Akbar unified. National weights and measures have strongly promoted the development of industry and commerce. Akbar believes in Islam, and Hinduism has long been popular in India, so there are frequent conflicts between Hinduism and Islam, which greatly affects the stability and unity of the country. In order to coordinate Hindu and Islamic relations, Akbar took a series of measures. He declared that all denominations were equal. He chose Hindus as senior officials. Akbar himself also adopted Hindu practices in court. Out of his “tolerant personality” and his “pursuit of religious thought”, Akbar also created a “holy religion” without God, prophet and teaching.

Akbar died in October 1605. After his death, his descendants ruled India for more than 50 years (1605-1657) during which the Mogul Empire flourished and feudal economy developed. Akbar laid a solid foundation for the prosperity and development of the Mogul Empire. He was one of the most prominent figures in the Mogul Empire.


After Akbar’s death, the Mogul Empire was successively ruled by Jahangir and Shah Jahan. During the reign of King Jahanji (1605-1627), Arjun, the fifth generation of Sikh ancestors, changed the parish into an administrative institution and levied taxes on believers. This move caused a shock in the Mogul Empire, and it clearly had the meaning of divisive resistance. Arjun also established a gold shop in Amritsar as a Sikh shrine and administrative center. The Sikh Scripture Artemigrant was also written in this period. Sikhism used to be labelled as a group of peaceful retreats. The ancestors only cared about missionary work and never interfered in politics. Arjun, however, was involved in the disputes between the Mogul royal family and sheltered the rebellious prince, thus being hated by King Jahangi, who led to the death in 1606. Starting from this, the period of peaceful development of Sikhism ended.

In 1633, Shah Jahan defeated and annexed the Kingdom of Ahmed Nagar. However, this victory provoked resistance from several forces that would hasten the demise of the Mogul Empire. Shah Jahan reoccupied Kandahar in 1638, but lost it again in 1649. In a futile attempt to capture Samarkand, he lost 5,000 people. He won only in the south, where he first pursued a general who fled to Ahmed Nagar in 1629 on suspicion of treason. Shah Jahan commands military operations in Bulhanbul.

In 1657, Shah Jahan was seriously ill and his four sons began to fight for the throne. Shah Jahan dotes on his eldest son, Dara Shikoh, but his third son, Olang Brown, is the most capable of the princes. He and Dara Shikoh hate each other very much. Shah Jahan recovered, but by then the conflict between his sons had reached a point where there was no turning back, so he could not stop the war within the family. In 1658, Aurangzeb won and deposed his father.

In the mid-17th century, the Mogul Empire was in the golden age. The Indian people were outstanding architects. During the period of Emperor Shah Jahan, India built many famous buildings such as the Red Castle in Delhi. Among the many places of interest and historic interest, the most famous is the Taj Mahal in Agra, a gift built by Shah Jahan for his dead pet princess.

Aurangzeb was the most important but controversial emperor of the Mogul Empire. He abandoned the policy of religious tolerance in the early period of the Mogul Empire, especially in the Age of Akbar, and strengthened the religious status of Islam in an attempt to make India totally Islamic. Aurangzeb restored the head tax on non-Muslims, expelled Hindus from the government, and demolished Hindu temples and gods in large numbers. These short-sighted policies sharpened the conflict between non-Muslims in the Empire and the government, and soon turned into armed struggle. The Sikhs and Lachputians who adhered to their beliefs became the open enemies of the Mogul Empire; Aurangzeb, though defeated them many times, could not completely destroy their resistance. The most dangerous domestic enemy was the emerging Malata State, which later developed military capabilities comparable to those of the Mogul Empire.

On the other hand, the territory of the Mogul Empire expanded to its maximum during his reign, as Aurangzeb tried to wipe out his political opponents. He stayed in Deccan for a long time to command the conquest of the small Muslim countries in the region, which were formed after the split of the Bahmani dynasty, the Islamic power in Deccan in the early 16th century. As a result, Aurangzeb won, merging the Deccan region into the Empire and becoming the supreme ruler of southern India. Apart from the southern end of the South Asian subcontinent and the Kingdom of Malata, Aurangzeb unified the entire Indian subcontinent. The Mogul Empire after Aurangzeb’s death is called the “Late Mogul”. The characteristics of this period were that the emperors were mostly fatuous and incompetent, and the more the Malatans fought, the more they tended to replace Mughal. But the determinant of India’s fate is the new European powers.

The Decline of Empire

At the beginning of the eighteenth century, by the time Aurangzeb died, what remained was a fragmented empire. At that time, European colonists, especially British colonists, were stepping up their aggression against India, which had been divided and weakened its resistance. As Marx put it, “The infinite power of the Great Mughal was overthrown by his governors, the power of the governors was overthrown by the Malatas, the power of the Malatas was overthrown by the Afghans, and in the midst of such a melee, the British broke in and conquered them all.” First of all, the Punjab peasants, using their Sikhism as a weapon of thought and organizational form, demanded the elimination of caste differences and proposed the establishment of a “kingdom of truth” in which land belonged to peasants. They launched the armed struggle of peasants, which lasted for decades. The scale of the struggle rose and grew, and the rebellion area actually once got rid of the jurisdiction of the Mogul Empire. But because they fought for each other, they were defeated by the rulers of the country. At the same time, the rule of the Mogul Empire began to decline.

The declining state organs were unable to resist foreign invasion from the northwest. In 1748, Afghans invaded northern Mogul and occupied Delhi several times. In 1761, the Afghan nomadic army fought with the 100,000 troops of the Malata in Banipat, and the Malatas were defeated. The Malatans were a powerful force against the Western invaders in Mogul, but they were severely weakened by the battle. At that time, France was the fierce rival for Mogul with Britain. After the “seven-year war” between Britain and France in 1756-1763, Britain expelled the French forces. During the Seven Years’War, the British colonists first started with the affluent province of Bangladesh. In January 1757, Britain dispatched the notorious colonial robber Klein Wu to land in Bangladesh under the leadership of the invading army, to buy the rape of the Governor of Bangladesh, to defeat the Bangladeshi army and to exercise brutal rule. Finally, his puppet, Mir Cassim, could not tolerate his control. He moved his capital to prepare for war and led 20,000 troops to launch an anti-British uprising in 1763. In 1774, after the occupation of Bangladesh, the British colonists immediately took Odd Pradesh in Northwest Bangladesh as a vassal state, and then invaded Mysore Pradesh to the south, gradually carrying out the arrogant plan of conquering the entire subcontinent. But Haydar Ali and his son Tippu Sultan (in 1782-1799) led the people to fight the British army bravely in Mysore Pradesh. Tipper Sudan died bravely in the battle to defend its capital in May 1799.

British Colonialism

Since the 1940s, the spearhead of British aggression has shifted to the Punjab area (now in Pakistan) inhabited by Sikhs to the north. Sikhs resisted bravely, but the feudal lords feared to mobilize the masses, coupled with improper command, and did not unite Islam and Hinduism against the enemy, so that Punjab was occupied by Britain. At that time, there was no authoritative state organization in the subcontinent, the Mogul Empire had no name, and the opposition of religion, nationality, caste and region enabled the British aggressors to use it to break down and divide and rule.

After the British annexation of Punjab in 1849, the Mogul Empire was completely reduced to a British colony. The Mogul Empire continued to rule by dividing and governing in politics. The real power of the government was in the hands of the British, and the Mogul Emperor was only a puppet.

In May 1857, in order to oppose the British colonists, the Mogul National Anti-British Uprising broke out. The insurgents supported Bahadur Shah II, the last emperor of the Mughal Empire, who had long been extinct, as the emperor of India. In his name, they issued a message calling on the people of the whole country to rise unanimously to expel the British colonists regardless of their religious beliefs. In September, the British colonists entered Delhi, an important center of the uprising. The Mongolian feudal aristocratic group headed by Emperor Bahadur surrendered, and the rebels retreated. Delhi fell. In Zhang Xibang, Queen Zhang Xibang (1835-1858) was an important leader in the anti-British uprising. She was Queen Zhang Xibang. After her husband’s death, the land was annexed by the East India Company, under the direct rule of Britain, and exploitation was aggravated. In 1857, Queen Zhangxi personally led the civil and military uprising of her own country, expelled the British army, occupied Zhangxi and restored her country. At the beginning of the next year, Zhangxi became the center of the Sino-Indian uprising. The Queen personally directed Zhangxi’s army and people to fight fiercely with the British army for eight days, which seriously damaged the British army. He then led the army westward, took the lead in the decisive battle with the British, fought bravely against the enemy, and finally died bravely at the age of 23. The Mogul Empire was completely occupied by British colonists. But the Mogul Anti-British Uprising also hit the British colonial rule hard, “shaking the British rule from one end of India to the other”. Later, Bahadur, the last emperor of the Mogul Empire, was banished by the British colonial authorities.

After the Fall

After the demise of the Mogul Empire, Britain ruled India directly for 90 years, until 1947. When the Mughals broke away from British rule, they had become India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Iran and other countries. The early Muslim Mongols who migrated from Central Asia had been integrated with the various nationalities of these countries. Nowadays, there are Mogols and Hazares in Afghanistan, Iran and other places.


Shah Jahan’s reign was the most prosperous period of the Mogul Empire. Shah Jahan continued to use troops to the Deccan Plateau, annexed Ahmed Nagar, forced Gao Kangda to declare himself a minister of Nagorny, forced Bijapur to recognize the sovereignty of Mogul, and expanded the Empire to the vicinity of the Kovri River. During Aurangzeb’s reign, the Mogul Empire had the largest territory. From Kabul to Chittagong, from Kashmir to the Kavili River, the entire subcontinent except the southern tip of the peninsula was included in the territory of the Mogul Empire.

In the Akbar period, the country was divided into 15 provinces (Suba): Bangladesh, Orissa, Bihar, Alahabad, Awad, Agra, Malawi, Kandesh, Bella, Gujarat, Agimer, Muertan, Delhi, Lahore and Kabul.



The Mogul Empire was centralized. The emperor called himself “the shadow of Allah on the earth” and integrated political, military, economic, legal and religious powers. The Council of Ministers established by the Central Committee decides on the state policy. Four ministers are responsible for finance, military affairs, industry, commerce and religious justice. Through Akbar’s internal reform, the Mogul Empire established a centralized military bureaucratic political system with monarchy. In addition, there are important officials such as private secretaries. It still retains the position of Prime Minister “Wazir”, but has no real power.

The administrative system of the Mogul Empire was militarized. Beginning with Akbar, all civil and military officials were divided into 38 levels, and their salaries were compiled according to military methods. Their salaries varied according to their ranks and sizes. They were Jagil, a military feudal territory.

Official hierarchy

Mogul’s officers are classified into 33 ranks. Every government official who provides military service to the Empire has a rank, namely Mansab. The officers who receive this rank are called Mansabdar. The rank is distinguished by the number of cavalry commanded, ranging from the lowest “ten-captain” to the highest “ten thousand-captain”, and more than seven thousand ranks are limited to members of the Royal family. Official ranks are life-long and sons cannot inherit them. Officials at every level have a fixed salary, and in fact Manzabdar at all levels has been allocated the corresponding Zajir fiefdoms, with local taxes instead of salaries. The number of cavalry actually provided by Mansabdar is not necessarily the same as the number of cavalry that its ranks should govern. The appointment, promotion and dismissal of Mansabdar did not form a system, but depended entirely on the will of the emperor. The incorporation of officers into the army will play a certain role in rectifying the administration of officials and implementing the rule of feudal autocracy.

Land system

There were three forms of land possession in the Mogul period, namely, the feudal territory directly under the king, the non-hereditary territory of Jagildar, the hereditary territory of Jagil and Chaimindar. The feudal territory directly under the king accounted for about 1/2 of the country’s arable land, mainly in Delhi and Agra. Its income is mainly used to maintain the Royal family, court officials and guards.

The Jagil system was implemented as early as the time of the Sultan State in Delhi, which was then called Ikta. From the mid-16th to mid-17th centuries, Jagil became the basic form of land possession in Mogul India. During Chahanjie’s reign, Jagil accounted for about 70% of the country’s arable land. Jagil’s owner was Jagildar. In the mid-17th century, there were 8210 Jagildar in Mogul India, which were divided into three layers: upper, middle and lower, distributed all over the country. There were 68 upper layers, consisting of princes and nobles, 587 middle layers and 7555 lower layers. They have no affiliation with each other. Jagildar had no ownership of his Jagil, only the right to impose prescribed land taxes and nominally illegal and de facto legal miscellaneous taxes. Jagildar holds that Jagil must be conditional on military service.

Jagil is not hereditary, or even lifelong. But by the time of Aurangzeb’s rule, Jagil was gradually in line with the Tchaimindal regime.

Judicial system

During the Akbar period, the system of combining Islamic Shariah law with secular law was adopted, which stipulated the independence of the judicial system. The central justices appointed judges from all provinces. All death sentences must be approved by the emperor, and cases must be decided on the basis of evidence. Officials must be prohibited from bending the law for personal gain. Declare yourself the supreme interpreter of Islamic Shariah.


Military Achievements

During the conquest, the founding emperor Babur defeated India’s 100,000 troops with 12,000 troops. Babur then seized Delhi and declared it “Emperor of India” at the worship ceremony of the Grand Mosque. With Agra as the new capital, Babur established the Mogul Empire and ended the 320-year rule of the Sultanate of Delhi in India. In 1527, the Mogul Army fought a decisive battle with the Rajput Alliance led by Lana Sanga of Meval in the village of Cannu west of Agra, and the Rajput Alliance was defeated.

During Shah Jahan’s reign, with the strengthening of centralization and the expansion of the army, the Mogul Empire became a large military machine, and the number of military nobles and armies increased almost fourfold, resulting in a sharp increase in the burden on farmers. Nevertheless, during the reign of Shah Jahan, the Mogul Empire expanded again under the condition of insufficient financial resources.

Military Tactics

Usually, the Mughal army consists of four parts: light infantry + elephant + artillery + cavalry.

Cavalry of the Mogul Empire. Cavalry dominated the Indian battlefield before the British invasion. In the first, second and third battles of Panitni, cavalry as a decisive force rewrote Indian history. The cavalry of the Mogul Army consisted of feudal cavalry, feudal cavalry and Royal knights, the former being local troops, and the latter being elite soldiers supported by the treasury. It is worth noting that in the late 16th century, the Moguls lost their territory in Afghanistan, and the Empire could no longer recruit as many Turkic fighters in Central Asia as it did in the Babur era. The Hindu Minister of northern India, the Mujahideen, became the main source of the Mogul cavalry. Rajputt cavalry is no less brave and good at fighting than their counterparts in Central Asia. It took Akbar the Great pains to attract them.

Since the introduction of European firearms into India at the end of the 15th century, the role of large-caliber long-tube front boring and cannon in the Indian battlefield has become more and more important. But artillery is so expensive that it needs a lot of copper and iron to make the barrel. In order to transport it to the battlefield, it also needs artillery shelf and sufficient pack animals. Finally, it needs to equip gunpowder and skilled artillery to make the artillery play its role in launching. The only empire with the ability to set up large military factories to make artillery and provide artillery with other accessories and personnel was the Royal family. The Mogul emperor set up special institutions to manage the production and transportation of artillery.

Ancient India was never an infantry power, although its agricultural population accounted for the vast majority of the population. The Mughal infantry is composed of light infantry shooters, who are recruited from settlers in towns or villages using muskets or traditional bows and arrows. Light infantry with Turkish heavy muskets and Portuguese conventional muskets are generally considered effective, providing more powerful firepower than archers. During the first Panitni campaign, the Persian-Turkish Musketeers in Babur had relying on positions to defeat the Elephants + Light Infantry of the Sultanate of Delhi several times. Attacks by archers and other cold weapons units.

There are many disputes about the effectiveness of war elephants. Supporters of war elephants point out that war elephants have strong destructive and deterrent abilities. Opponents who hold negative opinions hold that war elephants have no effect. They point out that war elephants have shortcomings such as high maintenance costs, vulnerability to trampling and chaos caused by friendly forces. In any case, I think that war elephants are effective from the point of view of objective facts, because Mogul, who also has powerful cavalry and has defeated war elephants, still develops his own war elephant army. During the period of the prosperity of the Mogul Empire, the royal family kept more than 1,000 Royal elephants and used them for large-scale performances and transportation of heavy objects in peacetime. Uses, in wartime put into the battlefield.

Like the armies of other countries, the Mughal army is mainly divided into three parts on the battlefield: the left wing + the Chinese army + the right wing. In the ranks of the Chinese army, the front row is the light infantry of the Mughals, whose role is to protect their own war elephants and combat the other side’s war elephants. The second row is war elephants, whose role is unnecessary. The huge elephant hoofs and strong trunks are big killers. The last row is elite heavy cavalry. When the Mughal Central Army launches an attack, the light infantry in the front row will disperse around the elephant in the second row and press down on the enemy. When the mixed troops of the Mughal Central Army successfully break through the enemy’s front, the heavy cavalry in the last row will start to give the enemy the final lethal blow.

The Mogul Army is flanked by light infantry plus cavalry. The advantages and functions of cavalry deployment on the flanks need not be repeated, but the role of light infantry on the flanks should be mentioned here. Cavalry plays a decisive role in the Indian battlefield, and Indians have come up with many effective strategies to combat local cavalry, such as harassment by light cavalry archers. It is well known that there are countless examples of using the harassment of light cavalry archers to defeat the enemy’s heavy cavalry. The bows, arrows and javelins of light cavalry archers may not directly kill the knight in heavy armour, but they can effectively kill the knight’s horse with insufficient or no protection under his crotch. The Knight loses his horse when he loses it. We are most proud of the impact. In order to effectively deal with the harassment of enemy light cavalry archers, the Moguls have specially equipped their own flanking cavalry with sufficient light infantry archers, which can effectively suppress enemy light cavalry archers.



A new tax system will be implemented to develop agriculture by improving agricultural technology, expanding the planting area of cash crops and increasing irrigation. Mughal society is still dominated by the agricultural economy. Commodity production in agriculture is expanding. Specialized production areas of commodity grain and cash crops such as cotton, raw silk, indigo and tobacco have emerged, and their products are exported to the Eurasian market.

Handicraft Industry

The handicraft industry in the Mogul period was very developed, and the main handicraft production technology level surpassed that of the advanced countries in the continental Europe at that time. The main forms of handicraft production are the workshops and family handicraft industries in the feudal economy. The high-quality products of the large-scale government-run workshops are mainly to meet the needs of the luxury life of the court and nobles, and then for export. In some port cities, contractors control the production of small workshops of handicraftsmen by means of advance payment, supplying raw materials and purchasing their products, but there is no advanced workshop handicraft industry.


The development of commodity economy promotes the development of Commerce and foreign trade. In the 16th and 18th centuries, although some major cities in India were still the political centers of feudal rule and the consumption bases of nobles, they began to play the role of industrial and commercial centers. The cities of Delhi, Agra, Lahore and Amedabad were comparable to those of Beijing, Paris and London at that time. Active commercial trade has gradually broken the blockade of all regions. Many regional domestic markets are formed along land and waterway trade routes. Bangladesh and Gujarat are the most developed regions in foreign trade, with merchant ships traveling between Europe, Asia, Africa and China. The development of commodity economy and currency exchange promotes the rise of merchant capital. Money merchants with sufficient monetary capital set up banks and banks in major cities to operate deposit business. Issuance of promissory notes and bills of exchange. The well-financed Bannian merchant caste serves as the Royal family, aristocracy and official royal merchant and financial broker. However, the commercial capital in India during this period has not yet been transformed into capitalist industrial capital.



During the Mogul Empire, a man named Tussel Das rewrote the epic Ramayana in Hindi, which was conducive to the preservation and dissemination of Sanskrit classics. The historical works include the autobiography written by Babur, written in Turkic. It was translated into Persian by Abdullahin Khan. In addition, Badaoni’s Anthology of History and Nicham Ude Ding’s General History of Akbar are all written in Persian.


The second generation of King Humayun, the third generation of King Akbar, and the fourth generation of King Jia Hanjie of the Mogul Empire are all advocates and connoisseurs of the art of the Mogul Empire. In 1549, the dynasty invited Persian court painters to India and began the creation of Mughal paintings. The perspectives, distances and shadows of the late Iranian painting style have been absorbed and applied to depict court life, flowers and birds, portraits, wars and other subjects. In the Akbar era, painters absorbed and individualized Western painting from the compromise between Iranian and Indian art. King Jia Hanjie attached great importance to painting, which made Mogul’s painting change from naturalistic description in Akbar era to realistic style based on calm observation, and formed a kind of painting style combining gracefulness and delicacy.


The policy of gentleness and kindness was adopted to treat the aboriginal princes and nobles. The selection of officials changed the tradition of only Turks, Afghans and Persians as senior officials, and chose Hindu locals. Akbar also married indigenous princesses as queens to expand the basis of state rule. We should reconcile religious contradictions within the country, adopt a policy of tolerance towards non-Muslims and abolish the head tax on non-Muslims. Allow Hindus to restore their previous beliefs. Widow martyrs, infanticide, child marriages and divine judges in India are prohibited and widows are encouraged to remarry. During Shah Jahan’s reign, the policy of religious tolerance was changed in Akbar, and Hindus were discriminated against and persecuted, especially against Catholicism, and churches were not allowed to be built.


The rich and luxurious conditions of the Mughal emperors created the grandeur of architectural art and the comprehensive style of inclusiveness of India, Persia and Turkey. Akbar serves as the city of Fatipul Sikeli, a model for the integration of Hindu and Islamic concepts. Taj Mahal Mausoleum, Red Castle, Mogul Garden in Kashmir and Pingjiar Garden near Calcutta all show high aesthetic values. Because of the growth of freedom of belief in Akbar period, traditional Hindu temple buildings have developed. The Temple of Bill Singh in Matra, which was destroyed by Shah Jahan, is the most famous. Architectural achievements in the Deccan region, such as the roof of Gol Gombaz in Japur, are larger than the roof of the Roman Pantheon.

International Relations

The interaction between the Persian Safavi Dynasty and the Mogul empire can be traced back to the founding monarchs of the two countries. As early as December 1510, when Ismayi I defeated Xibani Khan in Uzbekistan by Mulu, the sister of Zahildin Mohammed Babur, the ruler of Kabul, who was later the founding emperor of the Mogul Empire of India, was among the prisoners of war rescued by the Safawi Army. Ismayi I warmly received the princess and sent her back to Babur, which was the beginning of the friendly relationship between the Safawi court and the Mogul empire.

Kandahar is situated between the Mogul Empire of India, Kabul of Central Asia and the Safawi Dynasty. It is because of its commercial and military importance that Kandahar has been the object of contention between Safavid Persia and the Indian Mogul Empire since the 16th century. Kandahar changed hands several times between the Persian Safawi Dynasty and the Indian Mogul Empire. It was not until the mid-17th century when Kandahar was finally incorporated into Persian territory that the struggle between the two countries came to an end.


In the diet, clothing and other living habits, but also reflects the luxury of the upper class. Daily clothes of the great aristocracy were made of brocade, printed goods and soft cotton cloth. Their food is spiced, nutritious meat, rice, Biriori and other Persian foods. Hindu aristocratic families also replaced simple food with luxurious feasts of Persian and Central Asian aristocrats. Rare fruits, secret wines, delicate food to stimulate appetite, etc. were introduced into Persia from Rome, China and Egypt and developed rapidly, which was welcomed by the Hindu and Islamic upper classes. Many dishes named after the Mogul Emperor, such as “Sha Jahan meat” and “Jia Hanji’s Kobab” have been passed down to modern times.

The style of clothes has also changed a lot. In the collection of Jahangi’s paintings in the Berlin Museum, we can see that the Kings of Rachel and Vanagar, far from the capital, also wear Mogul costumes.

Historical Site

After the death of Babur, the remains were transported to Kabul (now the capital of Afghanistan) which was still under the imperial jurisdiction for burial. Therefore, the first Mausoleum of the Mughal Emperor in India is the Mausoleum of Humayun, the son of Babur and the second generation of Emperor Humayun. Homayong Mausoleum, located on the Yamuna River in eastern Delhi, is the first garden mausoleum in the Indian subcontinent and has an important position in the history of Indian architecture. Its tomb is crouching, with a spherical top above the tall arched entrance, surrounded by neatly arranged gardens.

Akbar the Great

Akbar king, also known as “Sikandra”, is located about 10 kilometers north of Agra. It was built three years before the death of Akbar the Great and was completed by his son Jahangir in 1613. At the end of the 17th century, the buildings in the mausoleum were destroyed by the Bandar invasion, leaving very few monuments. The imperial mausoleum in the basement is simple.

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal, made of white marble, was built between 1631 and 1653. It was a tomb built by the fifth emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife, Mumtaz(Arjumand Banu Begum). The Taj Mahal covers a wide area, consisting of the vestibule, the main entrance, the garden, the main body of the mausoleum and two mosques.

Red Fort Agra

The Red Fort of Agra is mainly made of red sandstone produced nearby, so it is also called the Red Fort. After Babur defeated the ruler of the Sultanate of Delhi in 1526, he became emperor in nearby Agra. From then on, Agra became the political and economic center of the Mogul Empire until its descendants moved to Delhi. As the capital of the empire, palaces and fortresses are naturally indispensable buildings. Agra Fort has these two functions at the same time. The moat around the fort is 2.5 kilometers long and the wall is over 20 meters high. It is very spectacular.

Victory City

Fatehpur Sikri, originally a city of victory, is the new capital meticulously planned by Akbar the Great in the 16th century. It has three walls, six kilometers long and seven gates. It is a unique building that integrates the installation art of Islam, Hinduism and Jainism.

Imperial lineage

Genealogy of Mogul Empire Emperors

Title Name

Birth Name



Zahir-ud-din Muhammad

1526 –1530


Nasir-ud-din Muhammad Humayun

1530 –1540 & 1555-1556


Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar

1556 –1605


Nur-ud-din Muhammad Salim

1605 –1627


Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Khurram

1627 –1658


Muhy-ud-din Muhammad Aurangzeb

1658 –1707

Azam Shah

Abu’l Faaiz Qutb-ud-Din Muhammad Azam

14 March 1707 – 8 June 1707

Bahadur Shah

Qutb ud-Din Muhammad Mu’azzam

1707 –1712

Jahandar Shah

Ma’az-ud-Din Jahandar Shah Bahadur

1712 –1713



1713 –1719

Rafi ud-Darajat

Rafi ud-Darajat

28 February 1719– 6 June 1719

Shah Jahan II

Rafi ud-Daulah

6 June 1719 – 19 September 1719

Muhammad Shah

Roshan Akhtar Bahadur

1719 –1748

Ahmad Shah Bahadur

Ahmad Shah Bahadur

1748 – 1754

Alamgir II


1754 – 1759

Shah Jahan III


1759 – 1760

Shah Alam II

Ali Gauhar

1759 – 1806

Akbar Shah II

Mirza Akbar

1806 – 1837

Bahadur Shah II

Abu Zafar Sirajuddin Muhammad Bahadur Shah Zafar

1837 – 1857