History of Daman and Diu
The history of Daman and Diu dates back to 2000 years ago. In the first century A.D, Satrya Kshatrapas ruled over Daman and Diu. Later Satavahana King Gautamaputra Satakarnin overthrew Kshatrapas from the region. In 2nd century A.D Lata Kingdom, one of the seven divisions of the Konkan Vaishaya or Aparant, established their rule over Daman and Diu and remained until 13th century. By the turn of 13th century, Chowda Rajputs were gaining stronghold on the region and Daman and Diu easily came under their rule. Chowda Rajputs rulers were later overthrown by Waghalas; and Waghalas were then defeated by Muslims who ruled over Daman and Diu for the longest period. The arrival of Portuguese in 16th century threaten Muslim rulers in the region and following Battle of Diu, Portuguese obtained supremacy over Daman and Diu. After 450 years of rule by the Portuguese, Daman and Diu was freed in 1961. In 1987, Daman and Diu was pronounced as Union Territory of India.
History of Daman and Diu
- The history of Daman and Diu is traced back to 2000 years ago. The recent archaeological excavation carried out in Surat reveals that this region was ruled by Satrya Kshatrapas and Kushana Kings in the first century. The coins belonging to Kshatrapas, Bhumaka and Nahapan were found in excavates site of Surat district. The edict of the Emperor Ashoka was discovered in Sopara and Saurashtra .
- According to historians, Ushavadatta, son-in-law of Nahapan, is believed to have facilitated ferries on rivers such as Tapi Parada, Dhanuha and Dhamana. The earliest references of these rivers suggest that the names of these rivers remained unaltered for centuries.
- Around 125 A.D, Satavahana King Gautamaputra Satakarnin ousted Kshaharatas from Daman and Diu. However, Satavahana rule over Daman and Diu was short lived. By about 150 A.D, Rudraman I, grandson of Chastan – the Kadamaka Kshatrapas, recaptured Daman and Diu from Satavahana king Satakarni including river Mahi, Ratnagiri and large part of western India. From 234-249 A.D, the region was ruled by Kshatrapa Vijayasen
- In the 2nd century A.D, Daman and Diu became part of Lata kingdom. Lata rulers Govinda II , Druvaraja and Govinda III ruled over the region till 808 AD. In 5th century Damn and Diu was briefly ruled by Traikutakas.
- In 808 A.D, Govinda III passed Lata kingdom to his brother Indra and was given the title Lateswaramandalasya meaning the protector of Latamandala.Indra was later succeeded by his son Karka and Govinda.
- In 973 A.D, the region came under Tailappa II of the Chalupas of Kalyani. Tailappa II handed over the kingdom to his relative general Barrpa also known as Dvarappa Chalukya.
- By 13th century, Chowda Rajputs established their rule over the region. The Rajput prince Ramsingh conquered hilly tracts near Daman by defeating koli chief Nathorat. Ramsingh was succeded by his son Somanath followed by Daram shah, Jagatshah and Gopushah.
- Chowda Rajputs were later defeated by Waghalas. By 1330, Muslims overthrew Waghala ruler and established their rule for the next two hundred years.
- The arrival of Portuguese on the coast of Goa for trade was received with stiff resistance from Muslim rulers which led to the famous Battle of Diu. The Battle of Diu was fought between Portuguese and Muslim rulers on Indian Ocean in 1509.
- Portuguese won the Battle of Diu and Muslim rulers were driven out of Daman and Diu by Portuguese in 1510.
- Portuguese established their rule over Daman and Diu for the longest period – for over four centuries until 1961. However, in between, attempts were made by Sultans of Gujarat in 1536, 1545 and 1546 respectively to drive away Portuguese from the Fort of Diu but met with no success. The Treaty of 1543 established Portuguese authority over Diu.
- The Portuguese annexed part of the western coasts such as Salcete, Talukas and Bardez.
- Damn and Diu was finally liberated from Portuguese in 1961 after Indian Army carried out Operation Vijay to cease the colonial rule in Daman and Diu. The regions on the west coast of India were then grouped as one political entity after they were freed Portuguese rule in 1961.
- Daman and Diu became part of Goa under the constitution Twelfth Amendment Act of 1962. However, the 57th Amendment of the Constitution accorded statehood to Goa and thus Daman and Diu was separated from Goa.
- In 1987 Daman & Diu was declared a Union Territory by the constitution of India.
- The union territory of Daman and Diu was formed on 30 May, 1987.
Until the end of colonial rule in 1961, Daman and Diu had been alluring plots of land over which ancient and medieval kings including foreign powers fought wars to establish their supremacy over the region. Quiet memories of history remained locked in monuments and forts of Damn and Diu. Its long history made this tiny union territory a melting pot for various races and cultures.